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December 2013

11. Organizational Hierarchy


Organisational Hierarchy v2.0

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The Organizational Hierarchy is a conceptual model based on the Organizational Scales' taxonomy which identifies 12 organizational scales ranging from Markets (OrgScale 1, the largest) to Individuals (OrgScale 12, the smallest). The 12 OrgScales belong to three OrgScale Clusters: Macro (1-7), Meso (8) and Micro (9-12).

The 12 OrgScales are:

  1. Global Market
  2. Defined Market (e.g. European Union or individual countries)
  3. SubMarket (e.g. regional, state or local markets)
  4. Industry (e.g. Construction Industry)
  5. Sector (e.g. Design or Construction Sectors)
  6. Discipline (e.g. structural or mechanical disciplines)
  7. Specialty (e.g. steel detailing or kitchen design specialties)
  8. Organizational Team (e.g. two or more organizations working on the same project)
  9. Organization (e.g. an engineering or construction company)
  10. Organizational Unit (a department, branch or business stream)
  11. Organizational Group (a group of individuals or a 'work team')
  12. Organizational Member (an individual)

The hierarchy is used as a Scoping Lens to isolate a specific scale of BIM Players thus enabling a more-targeted approach to BIM implementation and assessment.

10. BIM Maturity Index

BIM Maturity Levels at Capability Stage 1 - 2010

The BIM Maturity Index (BIMMI) is a conceptual model depicting five distinct Maturity Levels:



Level Name

Textual Rating

Numerical Rating


Ad-hoc or initial

Low maturity




Medium-Low maturity




Medium maturity




Medium-High maturity




High maturity



The progression from lower to higher levels of BIM Maturity indicates (i) better control through minimizing variations between targets and actual results, (ii) better predictability and forecasting by lowering variability in competency, performance and costs and (iii) greater effectiveness in reaching defined goals and setting new more ambitious ones. BIMMI apply to BIM Stages and BIM Steps at organizational or larger scales (e.g. Disciplines, Industries and Markets). 

Update (July, 2015) - below is a short video explaining the above on the Framework's YouTube channel:


8. Project Lifecycle Phases

BIM - Project LifeCycle Phases

Fig.1 Project Lifecycle Phases, and sub-phases 




Fig.2 Effect of BIM on Project Lifecycle Phases

Construction projects pass through three major Project Lifecycle Phases (PLP)s: Design [D], Construction [C] and Operations [O]. These phases are also subdivided into sub-phases which are in turn further subdivided into activities, sub-activities and tasks. This conceptual model (Fig. 2) depicts the effects of BIM on project lifecycle phases over the three BIM Stages.

7. Field Overlaps



The three BIM Fields overlap as they share players and deliverables. This overlap between fields occurs when:

(1) A deliverable requires players from two or more fields. For example, the development and  implementation of Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) across the construction industry require the joint efforts of Policy players (researchers and policy makers) and Technology players (software developers).

(2) Players pertaining to one field generate deliverables classified in another. For example, the Australian Institute of Architects is an ‘industry body’ whose members are Process players (architects) generating Policy deliverables (guidelines and best practices) rather than Process deliverables (building designs and construction details).

Legend: the letters within the model correspond to the following overlaps:

(a) Sample Policy-Process overlap: Industry body (BIM player) and Continuous Professional Development (CPD) training (BIM deliverable);

(b) Sample Policy-Technology overlap: Interoperability standards (BIM deliverable);

(c) Sample Process-Technology overlap: Communities of Practice  (BIM player); and

(d) Sample Policy-Process-Technology overlap: BIM Implementation (BIM deliverable), BIM specialists – individuals and groups (BIM players). 

6. Field Interactions



BIM Interactions are push-pull knowledge transactions occurring within or between BIM Fields and sub-Fields. Push mechanisms transfer knowledge to another field or sub-field while pull mechanisms transfer knowledge to satisfy a request by another field or sub-field. Sample transactions include data transfers, team dynamics and contractual relationships between fields and sub-fields.




Policy Field

Process Field

Technology Field

Sample interactions between fields and sub-fields

Push into other fields

- Skilled graduates, standards, guidance into Process

- Concepts, mathematical solutions into Technology

-Case studies  into Policy

-Feedback to Technology

Innovative solutions and new equipment  into Policy and Process

Pull from other fields

- Subject matter experts from Process

-Interoperability from Technology

-Development of solutions from Technology

- Standards, guidelines and graduates from Policy

-Standardisation efforts from Policy

-Requirements and experiences from Process

Push-Pull within the same field

Interchanges between research, education and accreditation boards

Architect’s Instructions (AI-push) and Request Further Information (RFI-pull)

Hardware capabilities (push) and software requirements (pull)


4. BIM Lenses


BIM Lenses represent the third dimension of the Tri-Axial Model and generate its depth of enquiry. BIM Lenses are distinctive layers of analysis applied to Fields and Stages to generate Knowledge Views. They abstract the BIM domain and control its complexity by removing unnecessary detail. Lenses allow domain researchers to selectively focus on any aspect of the DCO industry and generate knowledge views that either (a) highlight observables which meet the research criteria or (b) filter out those that do not.

Below is a short video briefly explaining the above on the dedicated BIM Framework YouTube channel:


3. BIM Stages


The BIM Framework introduces the stages separating Pre-BIM (the status before BIM) from viDCO (virtually integrated Design, Construction and Operation) - the ultimate vision from implementing BIM. These revolutionary stages, and the evolutionary steps separating them, are intended to both clarify and measure BIM adoption.

Note 1: this model depicts BIM Capability Stages at Maturity Level C...Also, starting in Paper A4, the term viDCO replaces the term IPD as used earlier in Papers A2 and A3

Note 2: The ‘BIM Stages’ model was first introduced by the author through BIM ThinkSpace (Episode 8 – Feb 18, 2008) and then published in Paper A2 as ‘BIM Maturity Stages’. As of Paper A3, the BIM capability/maturity concept embedded in the original model was split into two metrics/models: BIM Capability Stages and BIM Maturity Levels.

Update (July, 2015) - below is a short video explaining the above on the Framework's YouTube channel:


2. BIM Fields


BIM-Fields-v2.5Download full size image (current v2.5 - 2012),  (v2.0 - 2010), (v1.2 - 2008) or (v1.1 - 2007)

This conceptual model represents BIM Fields, the first dimension of the Tri-axial Model. BIM Fields refer to all topics, activities, and actors across the BIM domain. The Venn diagram (three overlapping circles) identifies Field Types (TechnologyProcess and Policy), Field Components (Players, Deliverables and Requirements), Field interactions and Field overlaps.

The model was first referred to as ‘three interlocking knowledge nodes’ in Paper A1 "A Proposed Framework". The term ‘nodes’ was later replaced with ‘fields’ to match the notion of ‘players’.

Below is a short video briefly explaining the above on the dedicated BIM Framework YouTube channel: